Four Cone 6 (1200C) Casting/Throwing Porcelain Recipes (Grolleg and #6 Tile)

Share from Insight-live.com (Lab Documentation and Calculation System) by Digitalfire.

See Also:
Cone 6 Grolleg Plastic Porcelain - A Recipe Explained and Demonstrated

Develop and maintain the recipe of your own super-white translucent porcelain body. Or compromise whiteness for workability and cost with an alternate recipe.


Project Name

Dialing the desired plasticity in four cone 6 porcelains

Project Codenumber

UnAssigned

Notes

White porcelains are made from kaolin, feldspar and silica. Super-white porcelains employ expensive, low titanium, low plasticity kaolins (e.g. Grolleg, New Zealand) and thus require the help of white-burning bentonites like Veegum (3-5% in throwing bodies, ~1% in casting bodies). Ivory porcelains employ cheaper, but more plastic kaolins and can tolerate a less expensive bentonite. White stonewares employ a mix of kaolin and ball clay (to mix with the feldspar and silica).

Modern potters want high plasticity, few would be willing to tolerate the flabby porcelains used in the past. Since plasticity determines plastic strength, it is possible to "dial-up" just the right amount to enable anything from throwing a giant vase to casting a super-thin-walled piece (capable of pulling itself from the mold, as it shrinks, without splitting). The bentonite addition for this whole range of working properties is from 5% down to 0.5%.

Grolleg kaolin does not fire quite as white as New Zealand kaolin but requires less feldspar to produce a vitreous body. And it has better drying strength. By employing VeeGum as the plasticizer, the feldspar can be dropped even further.

Assuming that 20-25% silica is needed for glaze fit, we did a series of tests (L3778) to discover what blend of feldspar and kaolin (in the remaining 75% of the recipe) is needed to achieve a degree of vitrification where zero porosity is reached a little before cone 6. Fired shrinkage and porosity data is shown for each.

If you are adding stains note that maturity and firing shrinkage will be affected (depending on the stain).

URLs

Every potter needs a plaster table

Convert a Grolleg throwing body to a casting body

What is deflocculation

Mixing the Casting Slip (section on Polar Ice Page)

Cone 6 Translucent Grolleg Casting

Code #

L3778G

Location

BOX53

Materials Amt
Grolleg Kaolin 44.000
Silica 25.000
Nepheline Syenite 30.000
VeeGum 1.000

Total:100.00

Notes

*Because this employs Grolleg kaolin, it fires much whiter than bodies made using North American kaolins. And it will be more vitreous.

Many Grolleg recipes found online incorporate other kaolins and even ball clays, a bad idea since they will darken the fired color considerably (meaning you are wasting the extra expense of the Grolleg). New Zealand kaolin will whiten the body even more, if you use it be ready to adjust the percentage of Nepheline to control changes in degree of vitrification.

The 1% VeeGum is needed for casting (without it the clay would shrink too little to pull itself away from the mold and it would split while doing so).

You can convert this to a plastic throwing version by simply adding VeeGum, a truly remarkable material. It has unparalleled plasticizing power, fires completely white and is an amazing flux (reducing considerably the amount of feldspar/nepheline needed). For plastic bodies 3% VeeGum is enough to get good plasticity, 4% will give super plasticity (if you can afford it, can tolerate more difficult slurrying, high stickiness and increased drying shrinkage).

By experimentation you can derive the Plainsman Polar Ice recipe (for throwing). It uses New Zealand kaolin, silica, nepheline and Veegum. You already know it has 4% Veegum and 25% silica, so deriving the nepheline/NZK ratio is just a matter of testing.

For slurry-mixing instructions use the ones found on the Polar Ice data sheet at plainsmanclays.com.

Comments

2020-10-08

For 2000 powder used 888 water, 7 Darvan. 1.72SG.
Pretty viscous but still casted well.

Pictures

L3778G cone 6 Grolleg casting body vs. others

Top is this body. Next one is a whiteware casting body made using Pioneer Kaolin and KT1-4 ball clay (M370 casting) The bottom one is a buff stoneware (M340 casting)

L3778G Grolleg cone 6 casting

The glaze is GA6-B. The body fires extremely white and dense, producing stunning pieces. It is porous at bisque state and it is easy to get glazes on too thick.

L3778G with GA6-B glaze fired at cone 6

Fired strength is very good (under the hammer). Rather than shatter, it simply broke cleanly into to pieces.

L4217G, L3798G2, L3778G fired bars

Fired from cone 8 to 4 (top to bottom). G2 is a remake of the L3798G mix (to double check accuracy).

L3778G Cone 6 Translucent Grolleg Casting fired bars

L3778G vs Polar Ice - Fired bars

Testdata

SHAB - Shrinkage/Absorption

DLEN FLEN FWT BWT CONE DSHR FSHR ABS
3 95.69 88.7 39.23 40.95 3.0 4.3% 7.3% 4.4%
4 95.61 87.2 37.09 37.5 4.0 4.4% 8.8% 1.1%
5 95.8 86.92 39.81 39.88 5.0 4.2% 9.3% 0.2%
6 95.7 87.13 39.17 39.22 6.0 4.3% 9.0% 0.1%
7 95.85 87.76 40.26 40.28 7.0 4.2% 8.4% 0.0%
8 95.86 87.77 40.12 40.14 7.8 4.1% 8.4% 0.0%

XML (to paste into Insight)

<?xml version="1.0"?> <recipes version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"> <recipe name="Cone 6 Translucent Grolleg Casting" id="184767" key="jh1kcwup" date="2021-08-16" codenum="L3778G" location="BOX53"> <recipelines> <recipeline material="Grolleg Kaolin" amount="44.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Silica" amount="25.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Nepheline Syenite" amount="30.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="VeeGum" amount="1.000" tolerance=""/> </recipelines> </recipe> </recipes>

Born: 2015-03-06, Modified: 2021-08-16 17:35:25

P300 Cone 6 Casting Body

Code #

L3906

Materials Amt Units
Pioneer Kaolin 12.000 50BG 45.52%
Nepheline Syenite 7.000 50BG 26.56%
Silica 7.000 50BG 26.56%
Talc 18.000 LBS 1.37%
Additions Amt Units
Bentonite 12.000 LBS 0.91%

Total:603,288.00 (R)

Notes

*P300 is a cone 6 plastic kaolin-only porcelain made by Plainsman Clays. This is a casting version of it. This recipe employs Pioneer Kaolin instead of #6 Tile, this only needs 1% bentonite (instead of 5% for the plastic version) and the Nepheline here has been adjusted to fine tune the maturity.

This is a kaolin-only (no ball clay), it has the whiteness that comes with using only kaolin (but only as white as North American kaolins can achieve). Understanding this recipe will enable you to adjust it for your needs and incorporate your name-brand materials. Our bentonite is from bentonite.com. Pioneer Kaolin is moderately plastic, be careful about substituting ones that claim to be whiter but are not plastic enough. Nepheline is A270. Use a soda feldspar if you do not have Nepheline (better quality feldspars will produce a whiter fired color). Talc is Silverline but yours should work also.

Fired maturity: In our circumstances this recipe has about 0.5% porosity at cone 6 (measured using the SHAB test), not a true porcelain but getting close. The talc, a super-flux in this setting, makes this body possible, without it the Nepheline would need to be 35%. Try increasing the talc if you need it to be more vitreous, but beyond 2% it will cease having an effect.

Plasticity: The 1% bentonite is needed here to give casts enough green strength to release and pull away from the mold without splitting. If your shapes cast easily, you may be able to use less bentonite (meaning pieces will cast faster).

Glaze fit: The 25% silica is essential. If you reduce it for high kaolin, glazes may craze.

Deflocculation: For 1000 powder use 394 water, 3.6 Darvan to produce about 1.8SG. Start with 3.0 Darvan and add more if needed to get a slurry that gels slightly on standing for a few minutes.

Pictures

G2926B after 300F:Icewater test 300:370

On P300 test mix (made with Pioneer kaolin, left), 370 next recipes. Neither crazed on the sidewalls. But P300 crazed on the bottom (as shown). Slight crazing on L3905 M370 but this did not get worse after a year.

P300 using Pioneer kaolin - mug bottom

P6346 vs. L3906 Lab test with PIoneer P300s

P6346 P300 vs L3906 P300 test bars

G2926b clear not crazed after two weeks

L3906 P300 Using Pioneer Kaolin fired bars

Alternate Code Number:L3771J

Testdata

SHAB - Shrinkage/Absorption

DLEN FLEN FWT BWT CONE DSHR FSHR ABS
4 93.66 86.64 37.27 38.06 4.9 6.3% 7.5% 2.1%
5 93.77 86.02 39.21 39.37 5.9 6.2% 8.3% 0.4%
6 93.94 86.36 38.93 39.13 5.9 6.1% 8.1% 0.5%
7 93.77 86.53 39.07 39.23 7.0 6.2% 7.7% 0.4%
8 93.88 86.43 38.18 38.2 7.8 6.1% 7.9% 0.1%

LDW - LOI/Density/Water Content

WWGT DWGT FWGT H2O LOI DENS
1 27.6 21.56 20.09 21.9% 6.8%

XML (to paste into Insight)

<?xml version="1.0"?> <recipes version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"> <recipe name="P300 Cone 6 Casting Body" id="92896" key="Pm8oWmY3" date="2020-10-06" codenum="L3906" picturebasename=""> <recipelines> <recipeline material="Pioneer Kaolin" amount="12.000" tolerance="" unitabbr="50BG"/> <recipeline material="Nepheline Syenite" amount="7.000" tolerance="" unitabbr="50BG"/> <recipeline material="Silica" amount="7.000" tolerance="" unitabbr="50BG"/> <recipeline material="Talc" amount="18.000" tolerance="" unitabbr="LBS"/> <recipeline material="Bentonite" amount="12.000" unitabbr="LBS" added="true"/> </recipelines> </recipe> </recipes>

Born: 2015-03-07, Modified: 2020-10-06 12:52:43

M370 Cone 6 Casting Body

Code #

L4217F

Materials Amt Units
Pioneer Kaolin 2.000 50BG 10.00%
Silica 5.000 50BG 25.00%
M-23 Ball Clay 5.000 50BG 25.00%
Nepheline Syenite 6.000 50BG 30.00%
Kaopaque 2.000 50BG 10.00%

Total:453,600.00 (R)

Notes

*M370 is a plastic throwing kaolin/ball clay porcelain made by Plainsman Clays. This is a casting version of it (this has no bentonite whereas the plastic version has about 4%). This recipe employs Pioneer Kaolin instead of #6 Tile (to make it easier to deflocculate and cast and release faster).

We are using a mix of Kaopaque kaolin and Pioneer kaolin (to use up old stock), you can use straight Pioneer. A further improvement to this recipe would be substituting the M23 ball clay for KT1-4, it is better for casting.

Deflocculation:
For 1000 powder use 394 water, 3.6 Darvan to produce about 1.8SG. Start with 3.0 Darvan and add more if needed to get a slurry that gels slightly on standing for a few minutes.

Pictures

G2926J1 vs. G2926B on M370F casting

Very good results.

L4217F casting porcelain fired at cone 6

Clear glaze G2926J1. Fired color is not as white as a kaolin-only porcelain (e.g. L3906) but this is faster to cast because the recipe does not need bentonite.

L4217F fired bars

Typecodes

MAS-Master Ticket

Testdata

SHAB - Shrinkage/Absorption

DLEN FLEN FWT BWT CONE DSHR FSHR ABS
4 96.88 91.15 54.18 57.09 4.0 3.1% 5.9% 5.4%
5 96.96 90.95 53.98 55.84 4.9 3.0% 6.2% 3.4%
6 96.81 90.8 53.33 54.68 6.0 3.2% 6.2% 2.5%
7 96.87 89.98 54.6 54.57 7.0 3.1% 7.1% -0.1%
8 96.81 89.4 52.92 53.26 8.3 3.2% 7.7% 0.6%
9 96.91 89.83 53.31 53.44 9.0 3.1% 7.3% 0.2%

XML (to paste into Insight)

<?xml version="1.0"?> <recipes version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"> <recipe name="M370 Cone 6 Casting Body" id="163116" key="XyKeF4Du" date="2021-07-03" typecodes="MAS" codenum="L4217F" picturebasename=""> <recipelines> <recipeline material="Pioneer Kaolin" amount="2.000" tolerance="" unitabbr="50BG"/> <recipeline material="Silica" amount="5.000" tolerance="" unitabbr="50BG"/> <recipeline material="M-23 Ball Clay" amount="5.000" tolerance="" unitabbr="50BG"/> <recipeline material="Nepheline Syenite" amount="6.000" tolerance="" unitabbr="50BG"/> <recipeline material="Kaopaque" amount="2.000" tolerance="" unitabbr="50BG"/> </recipelines> </recipe> </recipes>

Born: 2012-11-29, Modified: 2021-07-03 15:27:42

M370 Cone 6 Casting Body

Code #

L4217G

Materials Amt Units
Pioneer Kaolin 4.000 50BG 20.00%
Silica 5.000 50BG 25.00%
*KT1-4 Ball Clay 5.000 50BG 25.00%
Nepheline Syenite 6.000 50BG 30.00%

Total:453,600.00 (R)

Notes

*This recipe improves casting properties of L4217 by using a larger particle size ball clay. And it uses pure Pioneer kaolin (rather than a mix of two kaolins). It is a little more vitreous also. But still could be better. Consider adding 1% talc to reduce the porosity to 1% at cone 6.

For 2000 powder used 788 water, 6.4 Darvan. That produced 1.8SG. This was very easy to mix to a smooth, free flowing slurry.

Pictures

L4217G, L3798G2, L3778G fired bars

Fired from cone 8 to 4 (top to bottom). G2 is a remake of the L3798G mix (to double check accuracy).

Typecodes

MAS-Master Ticket

Testdata

SHAB - Shrinkage/Absorption

DLEN FLEN FWT BWT CONE DSHR FSHR ABS
3 95.77 91.51 41.28 44.58 3.0 4.2% 4.4% 8.0%
4 95.68 90.56 43.02 4.0 4.3% 5.4%
6 95.69 89.53 41.7 42.42 6.0 4.3% 6.4% 1.7%
7 95.62 89.26 42.97 7.0 4.4% 6.7%
8 95.74 89.23 44.12 44.47 7.8 4.3% 6.8% 0.8%
5 90.1 41.69 5.0

XML (to paste into Insight)

<?xml version="1.0"?> <recipes version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"> <recipe name="M370 Cone 6 Casting Body" id="184780" key="7n2wM3h4" date="2020-10-24" typecodes="MAS" codenum="L4217G" picturebasename=""> <recipelines> <recipeline material="Pioneer Kaolin" amount="4.000" tolerance="" unitabbr="50BG"/> <recipeline material="Silica" amount="5.000" tolerance="" unitabbr="50BG"/> <recipeline material="KT1-4 Ball Clay" amount="5.000" tolerance="" unitabbr="50BG"/> <recipeline material="Nepheline Syenite" amount="6.000" tolerance="" unitabbr="50BG"/> </recipelines> </recipe> </recipes>

Born: 2012-11-29, Modified: 2020-10-24 13:10:08