Titanium Floating Blue - A fragile mechanism

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Titanium Dioxide in GA6-C

Code #

L4655

P Materials Amt
Alberta Slip 40.000
Alberta Slip 1000F Roasted 40.000
Ferro Frit 3134 20.000
P Additions
* Titanium Dioxide 4.000

Total:104.00

Auto Unity Formula

CaO 0.48
MgO 0.24
K2O 0.09
Na2O 0.19
(KNaO) 0.28
B2O3 0.20
Al2O3 0.39
SiO2 2.70
Fe2O3 0.07

Ratios

Si:Al: 7.0:1
SiB:Al: 7.5:1
R2O:RO: 0.3:0.7

Expansion

7.6 (Molar:7.2)

LOI

4.9

Notes

*The original motivation for this test was to compare three different bags of titanium dioxide. However it produced an unexpectedly good floating blue.

We used the GA6C Rutile Blue recipe and substituted the Ceramic Rutile portion for an equal amount of Titanium Dioxide, (4%).

We used both the C6DS and C6DSSC firing schedules. The glaze was tried on M340, M390, and Coffee clay tiles, on these bodies there is no issues with crazing. But on porcelains there likely would be.

There is some doubt about the correctness of this recipe, it might be missing the 2% iron. We are checking.

Pictures

Titanium instead of rutile in GA6-C

These mugs are M390 clay. The top left one is the standard GA6-C (with rutile) fired using the C6DHSC firing schedule (the bottom left normal cool produces little color). But the ones on the right switch the 4% rutile for titanium dioxide (the L4655 recipe). The top right was fired using the C6DHSC slow cool schedule, the bottom right was the PLC6DS schedule.

Three bags of titanium dioxide compared

Left tiles are GA6-C cone 6 C6DH firing.
Right tiles are cone 6 are C6DHSC firing.

Would titanium work instead of rutile? Yes.

Rutile blue glazes are actually titanium blues (because rutile sources TiO2). Thus titanium dioxide can be used instead of rutile (provided the needed iron oxide, also in rutile, is being supplied by another material).

The center top tile is the standard GA6-C (with rutile) fired using the required C6DHSC firing schedule. But the one to its left and right contain 4% titanium dioxide. The one on the left was fired using the C6DHSC slow cool schedule, the one on the right the PLC6DS schedule (the bottom two reflect the same, but on a buff burning body.

A lower percentage of titanium could likely be used.

L4655 glazed mugs

These mugs were in the same firing. On the porcelain (left) the glaze fires the expected floating blue. The degree of difference on the right has two contributing apparent factors. While other clay bodies of similar color do not affect this glaze as much, the body used in the mug on the right contains Plainsman 3B, at cone 6 it vitrifies (releasing iron compounds) and it releases iron in soluble salts that are interacting with the glaze. Titanium is very sensitive to the presence of iron and this body is making it available in an effective form.

L4705 and L4705A (front)

Slow cool firing
Mug is L4655.
Clearly, Frit 3134 is required.

Untitled

XML (to paste into Insight)

<?xml version="1.0"?> <recipes version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"> <recipe name="Titanium Dioxide in GA6-C" id="239613" key="RimmBzxc" date="2024-03-08" codenum="L4655"> <recipelines> <recipeline material="Alberta Slip" amount="40.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Alberta Slip 1000F Roasted" amount="40.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Ferro Frit 3134" amount="20.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Titanium Dioxide" amount="4.000" added="true"/> </recipelines> </recipe> </recipes>

Born: 2023-05-25, Modified: 2024-03-08 21:18:10

GA6-C Using Frit 3195 and Titanium

Code #

L4705A

P Materials Amt
Alberta Slip 40.000
Alberta Slip 1000F Roasted 40.000
Ferro Frit 3195 20.000
P Additions
* Titanium Dioxide 4.000

Total:104.00

Auto Unity Formula

CaO 0.45
MgO 0.28
K2O 0.11
Na2O 0.17
(KNaO) 0.27
TiO2 0.01
B2O3 0.23
Al2O3 0.51
SiO2 3.15
Fe2O3 0.08

Ratios

Si:Al: 6.1:1
SiB:Al: 6.6:1
R2O:RO: 0.3:0.7

Expansion

7.2 (Molar:6.7)

LOI

4.9

Notes

*This takes the L4655 recipe and substitutes Ferro Frit 3195 for Frit 3134. We wanted to reduce the thermal expansion to minimize the likelihood of crazing on porcelains.

Obviously, it is not working, the high Al2O3 might be the problem. Or the MgO has passed a tipping point (this has happened in previous testing on this effect). Higher SiO2 and B2O3 might be a better way.

Pictures

L4705 and L4705A (front)

Slow cool firing
Mug is L4655.
Clearly, Frit 3134 is required.

XML (to paste into Insight)

<?xml version="1.0"?> <recipes version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"> <recipe name="GA6-C Using Frit 3195 and Titanium" id="244532" key="w9E2kzod" date="2024-04-10" codenum="L4705A"> <recipelines> <recipeline material="Alberta Slip" amount="40.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Alberta Slip 1000F Roasted" amount="40.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Ferro Frit 3195" amount="20.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Titanium Dioxide" amount="4.000" added="true"/> </recipelines> </recipe> </recipes>

Born: 2023-09-12, Modified: 2024-04-10 20:58:40

GA6-C Titanium + Iron

Code #

L4655A

P Materials Amt
*Alberta Slip 1000F Roast 40.000
Alberta Slip 40.000
Ferro Frit 3134 20.000
P Additions
* Titanium Dioxide 3.000
* Iron Oxide Red 2.000

Total:105.00

Auto Unity Formula

CaO 0.53
MgO 0.18
K2O 0.07
Na2O 0.22
(KNaO) 0.29
B2O3 0.31
Al2O3 0.30
SiO2 2.39
Fe2O3 0.05

Ratios

Si:Al: 8.0:1
SiB:Al: 9.0:1
R2O:RO: 0.3:0.7

Expansion

7.9 (Molar:7.7)

LOI

3.7

Notes

*Was also coded GA6-C1.
To get a more reliable effect that does not depend of the variable nature of rutile.

For 5000g powder 5000 water gave a good dipping consistency.

Pictures

GA6-C1 mug and glaze tiles

Too runny, no blue color on porcelain mug. But on dark colored bodies it does develop a deep blue.

L4655A on glaze tile - Cone 6

Alternate Code Number:GA6-C

XML (to paste into Insight)

<?xml version="1.0"?> <recipes version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"> <recipe name="GA6-C Titanium + Iron" id="188322" key="6pBFPepa" date="2023-11-01" codenum="L4655A"> <recipelines> <recipeline material="Alberta Slip 1000F Roast" amount="40.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Alberta Slip" amount="40.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Ferro Frit 3134" amount="20.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Titanium Dioxide" amount="3.000" added="true"/> <recipeline material="Iron Oxide Red" amount="2.000" added="true"/> </recipelines> </recipe> </recipes>

Born: 2020-12-15, Modified: 2023-11-01 03:09:56

GA6-C Lower Thermal Expansion

Code #

L4655B

P Materials Amt
Alberta Slip 31.000
Alberta Slip 1000F Roasted 31.000
Fusion Frit F-12 23.000
Silica 325 mesh (Silica) 15.000
P Additions
* Titanium Dioxide 4.000

Total:104.00

Auto Unity Formula

CaO 0.50
MgO 0.21
K2O 0.08
Na2O 0.21
(KNaO) 0.29
B2O3 0.26
Al2O3 0.33
SiO2 3.35
Fe2O3 0.06

Ratios

Si:Al: 10.2:1
SiB:Al: 11.0:1
R2O:RO: 0.3:0.7

Expansion

7.1 (Molar:6.8)

LOI

3.8

Notes

*This adjustment is being done to see if we can reduce the thermal expansion with an addition of silica. More B2O3 is being added to make sure the silica goes into solution in the melt.

Fired results have shown this to be a failure. The blue is not developing. And it appears the extra silica is the culprit.

This is being tested during mid Nov 2023.

90:100 water:powder to create suitable slurry.

Pictures

L4655B on porcelain and M390

Fired slow cool cone 6.
It appears the 2% iron is needed, I will add that and try again.

L4655B with iron added still not giving blue

Added 2.4g iron for 500g mix. Maybe that is not enough.

XML (to paste into Insight)

<?xml version="1.0"?> <recipes version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"> <recipe name="GA6-C Lower Thermal Expansion" id="246740" key="GNrE2Qsr" date="2023-11-27" codenum="L4655B"> <recipelines> <recipeline material="Alberta Slip" amount="31.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Alberta Slip 1000F Roasted" amount="31.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Fusion Frit F-12" amount="23.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Silica 325 mesh" lookup="Silica" amount="15.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Titanium Dioxide" amount="4.000" added="true"/> </recipelines> </recipe> </recipes>

Born: 2023-05-25, Modified: 2023-11-27 20:06:21