The Development of G2926B Cone 6 Transparent Clear Glaze

Share from Insight-live.com (Lab Documentation and Calculation System) by Digitalfire

Here is how we took the Perkins Studio Clear glaze recipe and adjusted it to prevent gelling of the slurry, make it more glassy and reduce the thermal expansion.


Project Name

The Development of G2926B Cone 6 Clear

Notes

Many transparent cone 6 glaze recipes are available on the internet. But they are not created equal. After working with many you will note several things:

-Few are truly glassy, that is, transparent and crystal clear. After seeing one that is, others quickly lose their appeal.

-Some craze alot more than others.

-Many have too much melt fluidity. Aside from obvious issues of them running off the ware and being very thickness-sensitive, fluid melt glazes are less durable (because they lack Al2O3 and SiO2). Fluid melters also generally craze.

-Some fire cloudy when thicker. This can be from clouds of micro-bubbles (from materials that gas excessively on firing) or crystallization (e.g. boron blue from excessive boron and calcia).

-Many have tiny surface dimples that appear when held up to the light. These are the remnants of the healing of bubbles that broke at the surface.

-Many do not host stains very well, either producing the wrong color and going matte or cloudy with in-color or over-color applications.

-Many do not suspend well in the slurry and they turn to jelly over time (often because they are fluxed with Gerstley Borate). Some lack sufficient clay in the the recipe which also produces a powdery surface.

-The leach resistance of many is questionable. These either contain significant percentages of materials questionable in themselves of ones that seed crystals which are more likely to be soluble (e.g. lithium carbonate, zinc).

-Many do not slurry and apply well to ware, it is difficult to get on evenly.

When you find a good transparent, it stands out from all the others. Achieving such is part of the basic science of producing quality ware.

When we found the Perkins Clear glaze recipe we saw problems, but also promise. It just needed a couple of changes to become a great clear.

Perkins Clear

Code #

G2926

Materials Amt
Nepheline Syenite 30.000
Gerstley Borate 21.000
EPK 10.000
Wollastonite 8.000
Silica 31.000

Total:100.00

Auto Unity Formula

CaO 0.60
MgO 0.08
K2O 0.07
Na2O 0.25
(KNaO) 0.32
B2O3 0.33
Al2O3 0.44
SiO2 4.20

Ratios

Si:Al: 9.5:1
SiB:Al: 10.2:1
R2O:RO: 0.3:0.7

Expansion

6.8

LOI

7.9

Cost

0.10 per kg

Notes

This was among many clear glaze recipes we found on the internet. It stood out because it was crystal clear.

But it also had two problems:

Gerstley Borate. 21% of this can easily turn a bucket of glaze slurry into a jelly that is difficult to work with, and, when thinned with water, cracks on drying. Gerstley Borate also contributes to high LOI which potentially can produce lots of bubbles when certain colorants or additives are incorporated.

Thermal Expansion: It crazes on some of our porcelains. The thermal expansion needs to be a little lower.

Pictures

XML (to paste into Insight)

<?xml version="1.0"?> <recipes version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"> <recipe name="Perkins Clear" id="55230" key="Av81cWse" date="2016-12-16" codenum="G2926"> <recipelines> <recipeline material="Nepheline Syenite" amount="30.000"/> <recipeline material="Gerstley Borate" amount="21.000"/> <recipeline material="EPK" amount="10.000"/> <recipeline material="Wollastonite" amount="8.000"/> <recipeline material="Silica" amount="31.000"/> </recipelines> </recipe> </recipes>

Born: 2013-12-18, Modified: 2016-12-16 17:30:21

Perkins Clear with Frit 3134

Code #

G2926A

Materials Amt
Nepheline Syenite 18.300 18.28%
Ferro Frit 3134 25.400 25.37%
EPK 19.600 19.58%
Wollastonite 6.900 6.89%
Silica 27.600 27.57%
Talc 2.300 2.30%

Total:100.10

Auto Unity Formula

CaO 0.60
MgO 0.08
K2O 0.04
Na2O 0.28
(KNaO) 0.32
B2O3 0.33
Al2O3 0.47
SiO2 4.28

Ratios

Si:Al: 9.0:1
SiB:Al: 9.7:1
R2O:RO: 0.3:0.7

Expansion

6.7

LOI

3.1

Cost

0.19 per kg

Notes

This recipe makes the most obvious adjustment to Perkins Clear: Sourcing boron from a frit instead of the troublesome Gerstley Borate (it is a bubble source, gels glaze slurries, is inconsistent).

The chemistry of this is very close to the original Perkins Clear. However because the boron is being source by a frit rather than a raw material, we added a little more Al2O3 and SiO2 (both beneficial to drive down expansion and improve durability). However the melt is still quite fluid, that means the glaze can tolerate still more SiO2 and Al2O3.

Since we want this to be super-gloss it seems appropriate to add only SiO2 (to increase the SiO2:Al2O3 ratio).

Pictures

G2916F Commercial Dinnerware Clear vs. G2926A (Cone 6)

G2916F is sold by Plainsman Clays as Stoneware Clear. Its melting pattern is more bubble-free because its LOI is even lower (the talc in the 2926A is likely contributing these bubbles). However when used on ware these bubbles do clear.

G2926 Perkins Clear vs. Fritted version G2926A

Notice that the frit melts the glaze more even though the amount of boron it contributes is the same. This is good because it enables us to add more SiO2 and Al2O3 (both beneficial).

Testdata

LDW - LOI/Density/Water Content

WWGT DWGT H2O LOI DENS
1 35.45 19.7 44.4%

XML (to paste into Insight)

<?xml version="1.0"?> <recipes version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"> <recipe name="Perkins Clear with Frit 3134" id="55231" key="hv6zdAJn" date="2016-12-16" codenum="G2926A"> <recipelines> <recipeline material="Nepheline Syenite" amount="18.300"/> <recipeline material="Ferro Frit 3134" amount="25.400"/> <recipeline material="EPK" amount="19.600"/> <recipeline material="Wollastonite" amount="6.900"/> <recipeline material="Silica" amount="27.600"/> <recipeline material="Talc" amount="2.300"/> </recipelines> </recipe> </recipes>

Born: 2014-01-30, Modified: 2016-12-16 17:46:46

Cone 6 Clear Glossy Base

Code #

G2926B

Materials Amt Units
Nepheline Syenite 84.000 KG 16.58%
Ferro Frit 3134 117.000 KG 23.10%
EPK 90.000 KG 17.77%
Vansil W-30 Wollastonite 32.000 KG 6.32%
Silica 173.000 KG 34.16%
Silverline 303 Talc 10.500 KG 2.07%

Total:506,500.00 (R)

Notes

The base recipe used by production at Plainsman Clays. A great general purpose base that melts well yet has high SiO2 and Al2O3 (for durability).

There are lots of pages and pictures online about this recipe and stain-added versions (e.g. at digitalfire.com and plainsmanclays.com). The page at Plainsman Clays has mixing and usage information.

This fits most Plainsman Clays bodies (and those of other manufacturers). But it does not fit Plainsman P300, a cone 6 whiteware.

URLs

Technical informat..at digitalfire.com

Mixing, adjustment..PlainsmanClays.com

Pictures

XML (to paste into Insight)

<?xml version="1.0"?> <recipes version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"> <recipe name="Cone 6 Clear Glossy Base" id="180072" key="bnMaYNfk" date="2020-06-29" codenum="G2926B" picturebasename=""> <recipelines> <recipeline material="Nepheline Syenite" amount="84.000" unitabbr="KG"/> <recipeline material="Ferro Frit 3134" amount="117.000" unitabbr="KG"/> <recipeline material="EPK" amount="90.000" unitabbr="KG"/> <recipeline material="Vansil W-30 Wollastonite" amount="32.000" unitabbr="KG"/> <recipeline material="Silica" amount="173.000" unitabbr="KG"/> <recipeline material="Silverline 303 Talc" amount="10.500" unitabbr="KG"/> </recipelines> </recipe> </recipes>

Born: 2014-05-15, Modified: 2020-06-29 22:04:28

G2926B Reduced COE (MgO)

Code #

G2926S

Materials Amt
Nepheline Syenite 20.131
Ferro Frit 3134 10.475
Fusion Frit F-69 10.311
EPK 12.439
Wollastonite 11.293
Silica 35.352

Total:100.00

Auto Unity Formula

CaO 0.60
MgO 0.15
K2O 0.04
Na2O 0.21
(KNaO) 0.26
B2O3 0.34
Al2O3 0.46
SiO2 4.97

Ratios

Si:Al: 10.7:1
SiB:Al: 11.5:1
R2O:RO: 0.3:0.7

Expansion

6.1

LOI

2.0

Cost

0.12 per kg

Notes

This is an adjustment to G2926B to reduce its thermal expansion. It increases MgO at the expense of KNaO. Even though MgO levels are quite high, no loss of gloss has happened! The effect on lowering the thermal expansion is dramatic.

This looks very promising. With 10% added zircopax it produces a white of even lower thermal expansion. We have subjected various Plainsman P300 pieces (a difficult-to-fit-glazes-to body) to 300F:IceWater thermal shocking and there is no crazing.

Ferro Frit 3249 can be substituted for Fusion F-69 (although F-69 is more reliable for ceramics). Likely any kaolin can be used.

Although there is only 12.5% kaolin this will suspend well if you follow the same procedure as explained for G2926B. In our initial mix 5000g water and 6000g powder produced 1.47SG. That was very watery so we added about 10g of Epsom salts to gel it.

Pictures

G2926S after 300F:IceWater test on P300

No crazing after the test. The transparency and clarity of the glass is great, this looks very promising.

P300 after 300F:IceWater test

S is not crazing after two days. B crazing in the cold water.

M370 with G2926S, G2926B inside

Untitled

XML (to paste into Insight)

<?xml version="1.0"?> <recipes version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"> <recipe name="G2926B Reduced COE (MgO)" id="131969" key="cxqZL6y3" date="2019-01-18" codenum="G2926S"> <recipelines> <recipeline material="Nepheline Syenite" amount="20.131"/> <recipeline material="Ferro Frit 3134" amount="10.475"/> <recipeline material="Fusion Frit F-69" amount="10.311"/> <recipeline material="EPK" amount="12.439"/> <recipeline material="Wollastonite" amount="11.293"/> <recipeline material="Silica" amount="35.352"/> </recipelines> </recipe> </recipes>

Born: 2014-02-19, Modified: 2019-01-18 16:31:02