Fixing Cone 6 Leaches Clear - Crazing

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Leach's Satin Clear Original

Code #

G2941A

Materials Amt
Custer Feldspar 21.700
Whiting 21.700
Silica 21.700
EPK 21.700
Ferro Frit 3124 13.200

Total:100.00

Auto Unity Formula

CaO 0.84
K2O 0.08
Na2O 0.08
(KNaO) 0.16
B2O3 0.09
Al2O3 0.43
SiO2 2.96

Ratios

Si:Al: 7.0:1
SiB:Al: 7.2:1
R2O:RO: 0.2:0.8

Expansion

7.2 (Molar:7.1)

LOI

12.8

Cost

0.23 per kg

Notes

*This is crazing on Laguna B-mix. Neither the clay or glaze are at fault, they are simply incompatible. Still, 20% feldspar sourcing lots of KNaO plus extra KNaO coming from a frit certainly makes crazing less than a surprise for this glaze.

Concerns: It is melting enough, but has low B2O3 and it won't take much to introduce cutlery marking and leaching.

Since this is a silky matte, it will be able to accept low-expansion MgO and can afford to give up high expansion KNaO. MgO is a mechanism for matte glazes.

It might be wise to consider using the base matte at http://plainsmanclays.com/index.php?menupath=62
It can be tuned by adding glossy glaze, giving alot of control over the degree of matteness. Matteness is a fragile mechanism that needs close control and assure a compromise between functionality and appearance.

Another matte base option is G1214Z. It is a calcium matte base that is well documented on the internet (just google "G1214Z recipe".

Pictures

Leaches clear on BMix - Crazing

URLs

A good adjustable base matte recipe

XML (to paste into Insight)

<?xml version="1.0"?> <recipes version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"> <recipe name="Leach&amp;#039;s Satin Clear Original" id="61955" key="2gFMeEPn" date="2019-05-31" codenum="G2941A" email="j_johnsrud@hotmail.com"> <recipelines> <recipeline material="Custer Feldspar" amount="21.700" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Whiting" amount="21.700" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Silica" amount="21.700" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="EPK" amount="21.700" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Ferro Frit 3124" amount="13.200" tolerance=""/> </recipelines> </recipe> </recipes>

Born: 2014-10-14, Modified: 2019-05-31 12:14:43

Leach's Satin Clear - Craze fix

Code #

G2941C

Materials Amt
Custer Feldspar 21.485
Whiting 21.485
Silica 22.475
EPK 21.485
Ferro Frit 3124 5.149
Ferro Frit 3249 7.921

Total:100.00

Auto Unity Formula

CaO 0.78
MgO 0.08
K2O 0.08
Na2O 0.05
(KNaO) 0.13
B2O3 0.14
Al2O3 0.43
SiO2 2.96

Ratios

Si:Al: 6.8:1
SiB:Al: 7.1:1
R2O:RO: 0.1:0.9

Expansion

6.8 (Molar:6.6)

LOI

12.7

Cost

0.23 per kg

Notes

*This recipe is the product of tweaking in my Insight-live.com account. My objective was to introduce MgO (very low thermal expansion oxide) at the expense of KNaO (very high expansion).

I originally tried supplying MgO from Talc. But in this recipe I employed Ferro Frit 3249, it is a much better because it has zero-LOI, is more consistent, melts better and brings more B2O3 (that extra B2O3 is going to make the glaze melt better). Frit 3249 is a super-low expansion frit. Only small changes were needed to match up oxide levels disrupted by its introduction. The fired result looks identical on the flow tester. But if it is a little too glossy, Al2O3 levels can be raised to tune it (that would by easy in Insight-live, just lower the EPK until the calculated Al2O3 hits 0.50, then raise the SiO2 to bring it back up to 2.95).

Another helpful change that could be made is sourcing CaO using Wollastonite instead of calcium carbonate. That would really lower the LOI.

Pictures

Leach's Clear crazing adjustment

This substitutes MgO for some of the CaO and KNaO. It also adds a little more B2O3 for better melting. This melts just as good or better and appears to have about the same surface gloss. It would be a little more matte by raising the Al2O3, this would drive the expansion down even further.

Leach's clear and craze adjustment

3mm thick x 15mm square samples fired on a porcelain tile.
Left: Original
Right: Adjustment.
The surface is iddentical on this samples.

XML (to paste into Insight)

<?xml version="1.0"?> <recipes version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"> <recipe name="Leach&amp;#039;s Satin Clear - Craze fix" id="61966" key="d8F3u2Eh" date="2019-05-31" codenum="G2941C" email="j_johnsrud@hotmail.com"> <recipelines> <recipeline material="Custer Feldspar" amount="21.485" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Whiting" amount="21.485" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Silica" amount="22.475" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="EPK" amount="21.485" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Ferro Frit 3124" amount="5.149" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Ferro Frit 3249" amount="7.921" tolerance=""/> </recipelines> </recipe> </recipes>

Born: 2014-10-16, Modified: 2019-05-31 12:12:23

Cone 6 Magnesia Matte Base

Code #

G2934

Materials Amt
Ferro Frit 3124 19.400 19.01%
EPK 18.300 17.93%
Dolomite 23.500 23.03%
Silica 26.960 26.42%
Calcined Kaolin 13.900 13.62%

Total:102.06

Auto Unity Formula + Analysis

CaO 0.54 9.77%
MgO 0.39 5.06%
K2O 0.01 0.19%
Na2O 0.06 1.23%
(KNaO) 0.07
TiO2 0.00 0.07%
P2O5 0.00 0.04%
B2O3 0.12 2.61%
Al2O3 0.45 14.85%
SiO2 2.71 52.42%
Fe2O3 0.00 0.14%

Ratios

Si:Al: 6.0:1
SiB:Al: 6.2:1
R2O:RO: 0.1:0.9

Expansion

5.8 (Molar:5.7)

LOI

13.6

Cost

0.00 per kg

Notes

*This matte recipe was developed at Plainsman Clays. It descends from a high-dolomite recipe that was originally used to compare shipments of dolomite for consistency. In our standard firings this recipe produces both good mattenss and a very functional surface coupled with very low chance of crazing. It is not as interesting as reactive mattes but this is better for functional and durable surfaces. This is also adjustable, the degree of matteness can be controlled by blending in a glossy.

WARNING: The degree-of-matteness is very dependent on cooling rate in the kiln. Fast cooling (e.g. our PLC6DS firing schedule in a lightly-loaded or smaller kiln) produces a silky matte or even glossy surface. Slower cooling (e.g. a heavily loaded kiln or the C6DHSC schedule) may produce a matter surface than you need (which is more subject to cutlery marking). Control the degree of mattness by either adapt the firing curve or blending in some glossy G2926B (simply the slurries pouring together, volumetrically is a good way to determine the ratio needed).

https://plainsmanclays.com/g2934 documents this recipe using a variety of stains.

Pictures

G2934 with Hemlock Green, Pansy Purle Stains

10 gram balls have been melt down onto a tile at cone 6.
Top: G2934 with normal flow
Left: 8% 6213 Hemlock Green. Needs significant flux.
Right: 8% 6305 Violet stain. Flowing a little less, needs a little flux.

True mattes should still be matte if overfired

The G2934 is a high-MgO matte, it melts well and does not cutlery mark or stain easily. As evidence that it is a true matte, notice that it is still matte when fired to cone 7 or 8. VC71, while having a similar pleasant silky matte surface at cone 6, converts to a glossy if fired higher (suggesting that its cone 6 matteness is due to incomplete melting). For the same reason the VC71, it is whiter in color (but as soon as it begins to melt and have depth the color darkens).

G2934 + 5% Titanium thinner/thicker on M390

Incredible cone 6 speckle body with G2934 matte glazes

This clay, L4115J3S, a Plainsman 3D-based body, fires vitreous and dense, yet there is no hint of bloating. With these matte glazes very durable and functional pieces are produced.

Outside glaze on both is G2934W (adds 10% zircopax). In our C6DHSC firings this produces as matte a surface as is possible without having excessive staining problems. To add a little gloss we blend in 15% of the G2926B Glossy clear.

Inside glazes:
Left mug: L4423A (85:15 mix of G2934 matte/G2926B clear glossy). It does not contain any zircopax.
Right mug: G2926B ball milled glossy, producing a striking visual yet highly functional surface.

These mugs look as close to cone 10R dolomite-glazed ware as we have ever seen! Especially the L4423A recipe

Melt flow comparison: G2934 with Frit 3124, Frit F-19

Fusion Frit F-19 is giving a more fluid melt.

The difference cooling-rate makes

These are the G2934 black glaze at cone 6. The piece on the left was fired using the C6DHSC firing schedule (drop-and-hold at 2100F then 150F/hr to 1400F). The one on the right was fired using the PLC6DS schedule (drop-and-hold at 2100F then free-fall from there). The slow cool gives the glaze on the left time to crystallize, creating a stony matte.

G2934 Cone 6 Matte + 4% iron oxide

Left: PLC6DS firing
Right: C6DHSC firing

URLs

Prepared public do..om Plainsman Clays

Typecodes

C6-Cone 6 Glazes

Alternate Code Number:MG6CDM

XML (to paste into Insight)

<?xml version="1.0"?> <recipes version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"> <recipe name="Cone 6 Magnesia Matte Base" id="56852" key="P9TawgkB" date="2024-03-08" typecodes="C6" codenum="G2934" picturebasename=""> <recipelines> <recipeline material="Ferro Frit 3124" amount="19.400" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="EPK" amount="18.300" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Dolomite" amount="23.500" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Silica" amount="26.960" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Calcined Kaolin" amount="13.900" tolerance=""/> </recipelines> </recipe> </recipes>

Born: 2014-03-21, Modified: 2024-03-08 20:40:00

Cone 6 Calcium Matte v2

Code #

G1214Z1

Materials Amt
Wollastonite 27.000 26.73%
Ferro Frit 3124 36.000 35.64%
EPK 20.000 19.80%
Silica 5.000 4.95%
Calcined Kaolin 13.000 12.87%

Total:101.00

Auto Unity Formula

CaO 0.89
Na2O 0.10
(KNaO) 0.10
B2O3 0.19
Al2O3 0.46
SiO2 2.50

Ratios

Si:Al: 5.5:1
SiB:Al: 5.9:1
R2O:RO: 0.1:0.9

Expansion

7.0 (Molar:7.1)

LOI

2.9

Cost

0.00 per kg

Notes

*This is an adjustment to the original G1214Z recipe. The chemistry of this is the same, but the 37 raw kaolin in the original has been split to a combination of raw:calcined kaolin to reduce drying shrinkage (preventing cracking as it dries and crawling during firing). If unavailable, you can make your own calcined kaolin by roasting the powder in a container in a bisque firing.

For 3000 grams we use 2600 water to get 1.45 specific gravity and good flow properties (no Epsom salts should be needed to gel the slurry, it is naturally thixotropic).

Pictures

3 opacifiers on Coffee Clay, M390 in G1214Z

G1214Z2 on M340, M390 at cone 6

G1214Z at cone 6 with 10% Zircopax and 5% tin oxide

The body is Plainsman M390. The firing schedule is Plainsman PLC6DS. The tin is on the right.

Alternate Code Number:GS6-B

XML (to paste into Insight)

<?xml version="1.0"?> <recipes version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"> <recipe name="Cone 6 Calcium Matte v2" id="156545" key="sKJnWMiR" date="2023-06-19" codenum="G1214Z1" picturebasename=""> <recipelines> <recipeline material="Wollastonite" amount="27.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Ferro Frit 3124" amount="36.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="EPK" amount="20.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Silica" amount="5.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Calcined Kaolin" amount="13.000" tolerance=""/> </recipelines> </recipe> </recipes>

Born: 1998-04-21, Modified: 2023-06-19 19:38:59