Albany Lithium brown glaze development

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See Also:
Cone 6 silky oatmeal brown glaze development


Classic Albany Lithium Brown Glossy

Code #

G2415E

Materials Amt
Lithium Carbonate 10.000
Tin Oxide 4.000
Albany Slip 86.000

Total:100.00

Auto Unity Formula

CaO 0.27
Li2O 0.42
MgO 0.18
K2O 0.09
Na2O 0.03
(KNaO) 0.12
TiO2 0.01
Al2O3 0.38
SiO2 2.55
Fe2O3 0.09
SnO2 0.08

Ratios

Si:Al: 6.7:1
R2O:RO: 0.5:0.5

Expansion

6.4 (Molar:5.9)

LOI

14.0

Notes

*This recipe was popular for many years. Over time people reduced the amount of lithium (trading it for a feldspar). The high Albany Slip content made the slurry difficult to use (drying shrinkage and crawling being the main issue, using a 50:50 raw:roast mix is one was to solve this). People did not learn to solve that by roasting part of the Albany clay (as is done with Alberta Slip now). Of course, you could do that now by roasting some of the Albany Slip (if you can still get it).

There was a key issue with this recipe: Shivering. This high percentage of lithium is the cause. Nowadays few can afford to put that much lithium in a glaze. And we have found the reactive effect works with half that amount (provided the rest of the glaze is already melting very well).

Glaze manufacturers generally have a variation of this in their lineups.

Pictures

Albany Lithium brown using Alberta Slip

Alternate Code Number:GA6-G

XML (to paste into Insight)

<?xml version="1.0"?> <recipes version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"> <recipe name="Classic Albany Lithium Brown Glossy" id="73394" key="16GNz627" date="2024-02-15" codenum="G2415E" picturebasename=""> <recipelines> <recipeline material="Lithium Carbonate" amount="10.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Tin Oxide" amount="4.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Albany Slip" amount="86.000" tolerance=""/> </recipelines> </recipe> </recipes>

Born: 2003-09-26, Modified: 2024-02-15 20:04:01

G2415E Alberta Slip Brown (less Li)

Code #

G2415J

Materials Amt
Alberta Slip 40.000
Alberta Slip 1000F Roasted 35.000
Ferro Frit 3249 17.000
Silica 325 mesh (Silica) 4.000
Additions
Tin Oxide 4.000
Lithium Carbonate 5.000

Total:105.00

Auto Unity Formula + Analysis

CaO 0.27 4.95%
Li2O 0.20 1.94%
MgO 0.37 4.86%
K2O 0.08 2.60%
Na2O 0.08 1.64%
(KNaO) 0.16
TiO2 0.01 0.21%
P2O5 0.00 0.04%
B2O3 0.21 4.68%
Al2O3 0.40 13.45%
SiO2 2.56 50.45%
Fe2O3 0.06 3.35%
SnO2 0.08 3.81%

Ratios

Si:Al: 6.4:1
SiB:Al: 6.9:1
R2O:RO: 0.4:0.6

Expansion

6.3 (Molar:5.9)

LOI

8.0

Notes

*The lithium has been cut (to reduce cost). You can increase it a little if greater contrast between light and dark is desired.

This substitutes Alberta Slip for the Albany (it was already known to work on G2415E).

To keep thermal expansion down this introduces a low expansion MgO frit (at the expense of some of the Alberta Slip). This introduces boron to help maintain the high melt fluidity that 10% lithium imparted.

If this crazes more silica can likely be tolerated. If it shivers some of the frit could be traded for Ferro Frit 3110 (to add Na2O and raise thermal expansion).

Pictures

Melt flow test of lithium brown cone 6 glazes

Left to right:
G2415K without the iron and tin.
G2415K with the iron and tin.
G2415J - the original Alberta Slip using raw lithium carbonate.
G2860 - AMACO Albany brown commercial glaze.

Even though the chemistry of G2415K is the same as the G2415J, it is has much better melt fluidity and almost no entrained bubbles (because of the fritted source of lithium).
The Amaco glaze appears to have a different mechanism, only exhibiting the brown where thin.

G2415J, K, K+3% TIO2 on M340

The titanium mattes the surface.
The K, which uses a lithium Frit, is much more runny an active. This sample was not mixed enough and some particulate tin and iron remained.

Alternate Code Number:GA6-G1

XML (to paste into Insight)

<?xml version="1.0"?> <recipes version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"> <recipe name="G2415E Alberta Slip Brown (less Li)" id="66651" key="uZyNu8Gg" date="2024-04-27" codenum="G2415J" picturebasename=""> <recipelines> <recipeline material="Alberta Slip" amount="40.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Alberta Slip 1000F Roasted" amount="35.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Ferro Frit 3249" amount="17.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Silica 325 mesh" lookup="Silica" amount="4.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Tin Oxide" amount="4.000" added="true"/> <recipeline material="Lithium Carbonate" amount="5.000" added="true"/> </recipelines> </recipe> </recipes>

Born: 2013-06-03, Modified: 2024-04-27 22:33:24

G3933 Oatmeal Alberta Slip + Li

Code #

G3933G1

Materials Amt
Alberta Slip 38.102 35.88%
Alberta Slip 1000F Roasted 13.000 12.24%
Calcined Kaolin 10.309 9.71%
Ferro Frit 3249 11.403 10.74%
Silica 325 (Silica) 16.272 15.32%
Calcium Carbonate 5.829 5.49%
Dolomite 5.289 4.98%
Lithium Carbonate 6.000 5.65%
Additions
Tin Oxide 5.000 4.71%
Rutile 1.500 1.41%

Total:112.70

Auto Unity Formula

CaO 0.39
Li2O 0.21
MgO 0.30
K2O 0.05
Na2O 0.05
(KNaO) 0.10
TiO2 0.05
B2O3 0.12
Al2O3 0.36
SiO2 2.37
Fe2O3 0.04
SnO2 0.09

Ratios

Si:Al: 6.5:1
SiB:Al: 6.9:1
R2O:RO: 0.3:0.7

Expansion

6.1 (Molar:5.9)

LOI

11.8

Notes

*This was done to find a way to mix G3933 cone 6 Oatmeal recipe using Alberta Slip (to solve crawling issues). But it morphed into this reactive Albany Brown recipe (which fires similar to the Amaco PC-32 commercial glaze).

We added varying amounts of lithium carbonate and found that 6% was needed for the effect (see picture below). It would not be advisable to add much more (because of the danger of shivering and excessive running).

This recipe is a good candidate for applying at leather hard stages. To do that switch calcined kaolin to raw kaolin and use all raw Alberta Slip (no calcine).

Pictures

G3933G Oatmeal Alberta Slip + Li

Top left is G3933G1.
Top right adds 4% lithium carbonate.
Bottom left: 6% lithium carbonate.
Bottom right: Amaco PC-32 Albany brown.
All are fired using the C6DHSC schedule.

The Amaco glaze is on thicker and its character indicates that it may have more than 6% lithium. We will do a melt flow test to compare them further.

G3933G1 with 6% lithium carbonate vs PC-32

Fired at cone 6, drop and hold.
The PC-32 has shivered off a large section of the flow, this, along with the greater flow, suggests a high percentage of lithium carbonate, perhaps as high as 10%.

Untitled

Typecodes

C6-Cone 6 Glazes

Alternate Code Number:MG6CDM

XML (to paste into Insight)

<?xml version="1.0"?> <recipes version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"> <recipe name="G3933 Oatmeal Alberta Slip + Li" id="246447" key="fZFLhwSC" date="2024-03-21" typecodes="C6" codenum="G3933G1" picturebasename=""> <recipelines> <recipeline material="Alberta Slip" amount="38.102" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Alberta Slip 1000F Roasted" amount="13.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Calcined Kaolin" amount="10.309" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Ferro Frit 3249" amount="11.403" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Silica 325" lookup="Silica" amount="16.272" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Calcium Carbonate" amount="5.829" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Dolomite" amount="5.289" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Lithium Carbonate" amount="6.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Tin Oxide" amount="5.000" added="true"/> <recipeline material="Rutile" amount="1.500" added="true"/> </recipelines> </recipe> </recipes>

Born: 2014-03-21, Modified: 2024-03-21 16:01:30

Amaco Glaze: PC-32 Albany Brown

Code #

PC-32

Notes

*At work Feb 2024
C6DHSC firing schedule.

Pictures

PC-32 applied thick on M332 - slow cool

PC-32 on M340, thickly applied

C6DHSC firing schedule.

PC-32 over G2934 Black

On Plainsman 3B MNP native clay.

PC-32 on G2934 matte black at cone 6

On Plainsman M340.

Melt flow test of lithium brown cone 6 glazes

Left to right:
G2415K without the iron and tin.
G2415K with the iron and tin.
G2415J - the original Alberta Slip using raw lithium carbonate.
G2860 - AMACO Albany brown commercial glaze.

Even though the chemistry of G2415K is the same as the G2415J, it is has much better melt fluidity and almost no entrained bubbles (because of the fritted source of lithium).
The Amaco glaze appears to have a different mechanism, only exhibiting the brown where thin.

PC-32

URLs

Amaco PC-32 glaze

Alternate Code Number:G3860

XML (to paste into Insight)

Born: 2024-01-30, Modified: 2024-02-18 04:42:34