Plainsman 3D as a Vitreous Stoneware Majority Ingredient

Share from Insight-live.com (Lab Documentation and Calculation System) by Digitalfire. https://digitalfire.com

To make these recipes you need to buy 3D powder from Plainsman Clays. It is available in 20kg and 2.5kg bags and inexpensive.


Project Name

3D Vitreous Buff Stoneware Body

Project Codenumber

UnAssigned

Notes

Plainsman 3D has long been overlooked as a body material because it is silty and low in plasticity. Because of this we failed to notice its fundamental advantages:

1. We have the largest reserves of this specific clay, so much that we do not event extract its layer on some minings. The layer is a meter thick and highly consistent and well delineated from adjoining layers.

2. It contains natural feldspar, so it matures well below cone 10, all by itself. Most cone 6 bodies made using industrial minerals need 30% feldspar, this needs none!

3. 3D is relatively contaminant free, firing clean and low in specks.

4. It is naturally very fine-particled, easy for us to grind and screen. Easy for you to wet screen.

5. Its low plasticity is actually an advantage. With that plasticity comes good drying properties (and surprisingly good dry hardness). And it does not take much ball clay or bentonite to plasticize 3D.

6. Its fine particle size makes it feel like a porcelain on the potters wheel, even at 43 mesh.

7. 3D responds exceptionally well to talc as a flux, only 2% talc will vitrify this at cone 6 and even 5 (by vitreous we mean 0.5% porosity or lower).

8. 3D contains plenty of silica so bodies made from it are easy to fit glazes to. Anything that works on M340 works on these bodies. Most cone 6 bodies made using industrial minerals need 20% or more raw quartz or glazes will craze. Bodies made using this need none!

9. When screened to 325 mesh, which is quite practical when done as a slurry, the material produced is an ivory-firing porcelain, all by itself. Smoother-feeling than any other porcelain we have ever used. The removal of the +325 particles renders 3D to be a plastic body that throws very well. A good recipe is simply 2% talc and 98% 3D! For cone 8, 100% 3D is porcelain density.

The testing data for each of these recipes is show. Pay attention the cone "cone" column and the "ABS" column (that is porosity). Porcelains typically have 0-0.5 porosity. Stonwares 1-3%. The "FSHR" (firing shrinkage column) is handy, vitreous bodies shrink more, when overfired the shrinkage drops.

These tests are related to a project to replace Plainsman L212 with a body that not only fits glazes for low fire but also works well at high temperatures.

URLs

3D Information page at PlainsmanClays.com

Pictures

Pure 3D screened to 325 mesh

A cone 6 mug made using 100% 3D.
Fired using the C6DHSC firing schedule.
Glazes: GA6-B inside, GA6-C outside.

L211 3D:OM4:NS:Talc 42 mesh

Code #

L4115L2

Materials Amt
OM4 Ball Clay 25.000
Talc 2.000
*Plainsman 3D 42 mesh 65.000
Nepheline Syenite 5.000
Bentonite 3.000

Total:100.00

Notes

*In this mix I am trying to maximize the percentage of 3D. It is reponding extremely well to talc as a flux, so almost not feldspar is needed to get the vitreous character.

Plasticity is very good. Feels smoother than porcelain, a delight to throw!

Pictures

4115L2 glazed mug, tiles cone 6

L4115L2 L211 3D:OM4:NS:Talc fired bars

L4115J1 at cone 04, cone 6

Spectrum clear and red glaze at cone 04. G2926B and GA6-B at cone 6.

L4115L2 at 42 mesh

G2926B inside, G2934Y Orange outside.

Testdata

SHAB - Shrinkage/Absorption

DLEN FLEN FWT BWT CONE DSHR FSHR ABS
89386.3337.737.737.87.0%7.2%0.1%
793.2685.9537.5637.627.06.7%7.8%0.2%
692.7786.3837.9438.136.07.2%6.9%0.5%
592.9187.2337.7538.594.87.1%6.1%2.2%
493.0987.7136.5537.724.06.9%5.8%3.2%

XML (to paste into Insight)

<?xml version="1.0"?> <recipes version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"> <recipe name="L211 3D:OM4:NS:Talc 42 mesh" id="185529" key="2Jt2aPYY" date="2021-02-03" codenum="L4115L2"> <recipelines> <recipeline material="OM4 Ball Clay" amount="25.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Talc" amount="2.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Plainsman 3D 42 mesh" amount="65.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Nepheline Syenite" amount="5.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Bentonite" amount="3.000" tolerance=""/> </recipelines> </recipe> </recipes>

Born: 2020-12-10, Modified: 2021-02-03 08:49:52

L211 3D:OM4:NS:Talc 80 mesh

Code #

L4115L2a

Materials Amt
OM4 Ball Clay 25.000
Talc 2.000
*Plainsman 3D 80 mesh 65.000
Nepheline Syenite 5.000
Bentonite 3.000

Total:100.00

Notes

*This is the same recipe as L4115L2 but I screened the slurry to 80 mesh. There was very little oversize and the more liquid slurry (that screened easier) dewatered on the plaster batt very quickly).

The +80 mesh was 22 grams out of 2kg of mix. That is 150 grams of oversize per box.
Fantastic throwability. It was easy to put up a very tall and thin cylinder.

Pictures

L4115L2A thrown cylinder with clear glaze

Cone 6

L4115L2a L211 3D:OM4:NS:Talc fired bars

G3879V on L4410G, L4115L2A (left) Cone 06

L4115L2A right is G1916QL
The QL is melted much better, looks fantastic.
None are crazing out of the kiln.

G1916Q on L4115L2A cone 01, 1

Ultraclear, not crazed after months.

Untitled

Testdata

SHAB - Shrinkage/Absorption

DLEN FLEN FWT BWT CONE DSHR FSHR ABS
893.0286.6139.2639.267.87.0%6.9%0.0%
793.1286.640.3640.406.86.9%7.0%0.1%
693.1186.5440.0140.26.06.9%7.1%0.5%
593.3387.441.4642.364.86.7%6.4%2.2%
493.3488.0139.0440.514.06.7%5.7%3.8%

XML (to paste into Insight)

<?xml version="1.0"?> <recipes version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"> <recipe name="L211 3D:OM4:NS:Talc 80 mesh" id="185979" key="3JbjWxxA" date="2021-09-03" codenum="L4115L2a"> <recipelines> <recipeline material="OM4 Ball Clay" amount="25.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Talc" amount="2.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Plainsman 3D 80 mesh" amount="65.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Nepheline Syenite" amount="5.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Bentonite" amount="3.000" tolerance=""/> </recipelines> </recipe> </recipes>

Born: 2018-12-11, Modified: 2021-09-03 11:17:40

L211 Stnwre 3D:OM4:NS

Code #

L4115J3

Materials Amt
OM4 Ball Clay 35.000 33.98%
*Plainsman 3D 42 mesh 50.000 48.54%
Nepheline Syenite 15.000 14.56%
Bentonite 3.000 2.91%

Total:103.00

Notes

*This increases the percernage of ball clay and nepheline compared to previous tests. The plasticity is better.

At cone 6 this fires exceptionally dense and strong. And fired bars are stable until cone 8 without blaoting. Reaching porcelain density!

Pictures

L4115J3 Fired bars

Testdata

SHAB - Shrinkage/Absorption

DLEN FLEN FWT BWT CONE DSHR FSHR ABS
992.3885.7336.4836.59.07.6%7.2%0.1%
892.3885.739.9539.988.07.6%7.2%0.1%
792.5285.753939.067.07.5%7.3%0.2%
692.5785.9938.5138.686.07.4%7.1%0.4%
592.5986.4739.29405.07.4%6.6%1.8%
492.2686.5837.6138.424.07.7%6.2%2.2%

LDW - LOI/Density/Water Content

WWGT DWGT FWGT H2O LOI DENS
123.9918.8117.5721.6%6.6%

XML (to paste into Insight)

<?xml version="1.0"?> <recipes version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"> <recipe name="L211 Stnwre 3D:OM4:NS" id="165290" key="vXKk1hMM" date="2021-04-30" codenum="L4115J3"> <recipelines> <recipeline material="OM4 Ball Clay" amount="35.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Plainsman 3D 42 mesh" amount="50.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Nepheline Syenite" amount="15.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Bentonite" amount="3.000" tolerance=""/> </recipelines> </recipe> </recipes>

Born: 2018-12-11, Modified: 2021-04-30 07:57:54

MNS Cone 6 Fine Stoneware

Code #

L4208C

Materials Amt
*Plainsman 3D 200 mesh 63.000
M23 Ball Clay 20.000
Nepheline Syenite 15.000
Bentonite 2.000

Total:100.00

Notes

*I wet screened the 3D to 200 mesh then dried it out to mix this recipe (later we screened it to 325 mesh and got even better results). The finer 3D is more plastic, so I was able to use a higher percentage of 3D.

Throwing is good but could be better (since drying shrinkage is still low). It needs 3% bentonite (L4208C1). Or a switch to OM4 ball clay.

I made many pieces from this and fired them from cone 6 to 10 with stunning results on everything.

And incredible clay body.

Pictures

L4208C mug fired at cone 6

G2926B inside - Perfect result.
GA6-B glaze outside.
C6DHSC firing schedule.

L4208C and L4279 fired bars

L4208C with 2926B glazed bowl

L4208C 3D Cone 6 Fine Stoneware fired bars

10 top bar are vapor contaminated by another bar in the same firing.

L4208C 3D porcelain/stoneware body - Cone 6

200 mesh. This is a stunning piece, strong as steel, clean burning. Inside glaze is milled G2926B, outside is G2926B.

Untitled

Testdata

SHAB - Shrinkage/Absorption

DLEN FLEN FWT BWT CONE DSHR FSHR ABS
1293.0986.7337.9937.9810.5R6.9%6.8%0.0%
993.9487.7541.4141.399.06.1%6.6%0.0%
1093.6587.4241.8641.849.06.3%6.7%0.0%
893.8687.642.3642.368.36.1%6.7%0.0%
793.5987.4141.4941.496.96.4%6.6%0.0%
693.6487.3440.7640.766.06.4%6.7%0.0%
593.7487.5340.0140.074.86.3%6.6%0.1%

XML (to paste into Insight)

<?xml version="1.0"?> <recipes version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"> <recipe name="MNS Cone 6 Fine Stoneware" id="179476" key="aM4ogiyi" date="2023-06-16" codenum="L4208C"> <recipelines> <recipeline material="Plainsman 3D 200 mesh" amount="63.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="M23 Ball Clay" amount="20.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Nepheline Syenite" amount="15.000" tolerance=""/> <recipeline material="Bentonite" amount="2.000" tolerance=""/> </recipelines> </recipe> </recipes>

Born: 2020-06-08, Modified: 2023-06-16 22:45:15

3D MNS 325 Mesh

Code #

L4249A

Materials Amt
*3D 325 100.000

Total:100.00

Notes

*At 325 mesh 3D is plastic and feels smoother than any porcelain I have ever used. It was relatively easy to sieve out the oversize particles, 80% or more passed the 325 screen. Removing those particle super charged the plasticity.

This reaches zero porosity well before cone 10.

Pictures

3D 42 mesh vs 3D 325 mesh - with G2926B glaze

L4283, L4349A 3B, 3D fired bars

l4283 vs L4249A fired bars

Very dense and strong

Pure 3D screened to 325 mesh

A cone 6 mug made using 100% 3D.
Fired using the C6DHSC firing schedule.
Glazes: GA6-B inside, GA6-C outside.

L4249A mug fired to cone 6

G2926B glaze inside.
GA6-B glaze outside.
C6DHSC schedule.

L4249A 3D +325# glazed mug

Testdata

SHAB - Shrinkage/Absorption

DLEN FLEN FWT BWT CONE DSHR FSHR ABS
994.0787.1336.379.05.9%7.4%
894.187.1940.2340.278.35.9%7.3%0.1%
793.9487.1539.66.96.1%7.2%
693.9787.4441.545.96.0%6.9%
593.88841.534.86.2%6.2%
493.7488.8941.8844.424.06.3%5.2%6.1%
393.9589.9341.45453.06.1%4.3%8.6%

XML (to paste into Insight)

<?xml version="1.0"?> <recipes version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"> <recipe name="3D MNS 325 Mesh" id="179870" key="qvcBorXb" date="2023-06-16" codenum="L4249A"> <recipelines> <recipeline material="3D 325" amount="100.000" tolerance=""/> </recipelines> </recipe> </recipes>

Born: 2019-12-06, Modified: 2023-06-16 22:59:29